Site Complet

West End of Lake Ontario (ON022)

Recherche

West End of Lake Ontario (ON022)

Hamilton, Ontario

Latitude 43,315°N
Longitude 79,520°O
Altitude 75m
Superficie 549,54km²

Description du site

This site is defined generally as the part of Lake Ontario west of a line stretching from Port Credit on the north shore to the mouth of the Niagara River on the south shore, and bounded on the west by Burlington Bar. The shoreline is one of low relief (<10m), with unconsolidated cliffs of clay-silt sediments. The coast is straight, with beaches across the mouths of small rivers ('Southeast Coast' subdivision), sedimentary rock outcrops ('Burlington Bar System' subdivision), and a wide sand barrier, up to 2 m, high across Hamilton Harbour. There is widespread artificial protection of the shoreline. Erosion rates are low as shoreline is relatively sheltered and prevailing winds are westerly. Shore-zone ice can persist up to 4 months; ice forms at west end of the lake by late December, and breaks appear in late February. Water currents are sensitive to wind direction, but appear to be predominantly counter-clockwise around Lake Ontario. Water temperatures reach 24 degrees C in late summer. Maximum lake depth at the west end of the lake is 100 m; lake contours indicate a gradual slope from the shoreline to this depth.

Beginning in 2015, an IBA-wide volunteer waterbird census is being held every other Saturday. More details, including a Map are available here.

Oiseaux

The west end of Lake Ontario is not a discrete area, but is defined by the impressive congregations of waterfowl which have gathered there annually since about 1990, primarily in late winter and early spring. Flocks of mainly diving ducks number in thousands, sometimes tens of thousands, with the more abundant species being Greater Scaup, White-winged Scoter, and Long-tailed Ducks (these three species all occur in numbers greater than 1% of their estimated North American population). Amongst these huge flocks, several other species of diving duck occur in impressive numbers for an inland location - including Common Goldeneye, King Eider, Red-breasted Merganser, and Surf Scoter.

Where the flocks gather within this area appears to be weather dependent; that is, strong winds cause the flocks to shift locations, presumably in response to demands for shelter and feeding opportunities. The concentrations of waterfowl are most likely in response to the invasion and colonization of the shallow waters by dreissenid mussels, Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha and Quagga Mussel D. bugensis. It is likely that most foraging for mussels by scaups, goldeneyes and scoters occurs on shelves less than 20 m deep around the perimeter of the lake; however, Long-tailed Ducks can forage in depths up to 100 m.

Enjeux de conservation

Pollution is the primary concern due to the amount of industrial development and agriculture around the western end of Lake Ontario. In particular, the biomagnification of toxics and pesticides through dreissenid mussels as food for the diving ducks is a concern. Shoreline development also has the potential for impacting birds, as does irresponsible disturbance of flocks by watercraft.

Catégories ZICO Habitats Usages Menaces Potencielles ou Existantes Status de Protection
Harelde kakawi
Nombre Année Saison
10 9812017Printemps
8 063 - 13 4602017Hiver
10 871 - 20 0002016Hiver
17 000 - 20 0002016Automne
9 300 - 11 9712016Printemps
16 900 - 56 8512015Hiver
8 650 - 29 3912015Automne
10 350 - 15 0002014Automne
33 0802014Hiver
10 000 - 13 0072013Hiver
10 0002013Automne
10 000 - 15 0002012Automne
10 8002012Hiver
21 0002011Hiver
10 0002011Automne
10 0002010Hiver
16 000 - 37 6002010Automne
8 883 - 10 0002009Hiver
20 0002009Automne
10 000 - 200 0002008Automne
8 000 - 68 9202007Hiver
100 000 - 105 4302007Automne
8 000 - 103 0002006Automne
15 800 - 24 3002005Hiver
8 000 - 8 5002004Automne
30 0002003Automne
8 500 - 40 0002003Hiver
20 0002002Automne
10 0002002Printemps
10 000 - 50 0002001Hiver
50 0002001Automne
10 000 - 25 0002000Automne
10 000 - 40 0002000Printemps
52 0002000Hiver
26 000 - 28 5001999Automne
10 0001999Hiver
20 0001998Automne
10 000 - 25 0001998Printemps
10 000 - 30 0001997Printemps
25 000 - 30 0001994Automne
10 0001993Printemps
Fuligule milouinan
Nombre Année Saison
6 038 - 7 1272017Hiver
5 000 - 5 2002015Hiver
7 0002014Hiver
5 9882013Hiver
14 4442012Hiver
14 6302011Hiver
6 5002010Hiver
12 4602007Hiver
4 7002006Hiver
7 1942005Hiver
5 0002004Automne
20 0002002Automne
4 500 - 25 0002001Automne
10 0002001Hiver
6 000 - 10 0002000Automne
5 000 - 7 0002000Hiver
4 7701999Automne
15 0001999Hiver
8 0001998Automne
7 500 - 30 0001997Hiver
5 000 - 10 0001996Automne
5 000 - 10 0001996Hiver
10 0001995Automne
10 0001995Printemps
5 000 - 10 0001995Hiver
8 0001994Automne
5 000 - 10 8001994Hiver
5 3131993Automne
6 7501993Printemps
5 0001993Hiver
100 0001992Hiver
Garrot à oeil d'or
Nombre Année Saison
5 0672013Hiver
4 3572012Hiver
7 4442011Hiver
3 9692010Hiver
9 7562003Hiver
12 0001998Hiver
30 0001997Hiver
8 7001994Hiver
5 0001993Printemps
5 0001992Automne
Harle huppé
Nombre Année Saison
2 1032017Printemps
3 5002015Automne
2 0002014Automne
3 0002013Automne
3 1962013Hiver
5 000 - 6 0002012Automne
1 7782012Hiver
6 4192011Hiver
2 600 - 3 5922010Hiver
5 0002010Automne
4 000 - 6 0002009Automne
3 000 - 4 0002008Automne
3 0002007Automne
5 0002004Automne
2 0001990Automne
Quiscale rouilleux
Nombre Année Saison
502017Printemps
252015Printemps
25 - 562013Automne
25 - 452012Automne
352012Printemps
322011Automne
29 - 2002011Printemps
502007Printemps
301996Automne
601995Automne
Mouette pygmée
Nombre Année Saison
7 - 172017Automne
5 - 92017Été
2 - 52017Printemps
22015Automne
22015Printemps
32014Automne
2 - 72014Printemps
32010Printemps
22009Printemps
2 - 32006Printemps
22005Printemps
22004Printemps
2 - 32003Printemps
22002Automne
Grèbe jougris
Nombre Année Saison
2 3782017Printemps
1 0602016Printemps
4002012Automne
360 - 1 2502012Printemps
4002011Automne
5252010Printemps
450 - 9042008Printemps
350 - 8502005Printemps
1 500 - 2 0002004Printemps
4001998Automne
420 - 1 2941996Printemps
Macreuse brune
Nombre Année Saison
7 5002014Automne
18 2352014Hiver
5 5002013Automne
5 2122013Hiver
8 0002012Automne
2 5432012Hiver
4 3642011Hiver
9 5002010Printemps
1 3492010Hiver
5 0002009Automne
5 4102008Hiver
15 0002005Hiver
10 0002003Hiver
10 0001998Hiver
5 0001997Printemps
10 0001996Printemps
5 0001996Hiver
11 1001995Automne
6 000 - 11 1001995Printemps
7 0001995Hiver
10 0001994Printemps
5 000 - 10 0001994Hiver
5 000 - 10 0001993Printemps
10 0001993Hiver
5 000 - 15 0001992Printemps
Plongeon catmarin
Nombre Année Saison
327 - 4901995Automne
Cygne siffleur
Nombre Année Saison
2 0462016Printemps
Martinet ramoneur
Nombre Année Saison
25 - 452017Printemps
252016Printemps
25 - 602015Automne
25 - 402015Printemps
252012Été
35 - 382011Automne
1002010Automne
302010Printemps
242007Été
35 - 1202006Automne
2302005Automne
Moucherolle vert
Nombre Année Saison
12016Automne
12015Printemps
12014Printemps
12013Printemps
12009Printemps
22005Printemps
12000Printemps
Paruline orangée
Nombre Année Saison
1 - 22011Printemps
12008Printemps
12007Été
12007Printemps
12005Printemps
22001Printemps
11996Printemps
11995Printemps
11993Printemps
Effraie des clochers
Nombre Année Saison
12009Automne
Ictérie polyglotte
Nombre Année Saison
12013Automne
12012Automne
12011Printemps
12010Printemps
12009Printemps
12007Printemps
12006Printemps
12005Été
12004Printemps
12000Printemps
11999Printemps
11998Printemps
11997Printemps
11995Printemps
11992Printemps
Paruline de Kirtland
Nombre Année Saison
12012Printemps
Pie-grièche migratrice
Nombre Année Saison
11992Printemps
Oiseaux aquatiques
Nombre Année Saison
30 0001995Automne