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Point Pelee (ON006)

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Point Pelee (ON006)

Leamington, Ontario

Latitude 41,957°N
Longitude 82,518°O
Altitude 173 - 177m
Superficie 70,75km²

Description du site

Point Pelee National Park is located in southwestern Ontario near the town of Leamingtown. It is the most southerly mainland point in Canada, located on a sandspit that extends approximately 17 km southward into Lake Erie.

The majority of the park is marsh (approximately 11 km²) with deciduous forest being located on the higher sandy ground at the tip and along the west side of the peninsula. Within the drier areas, a variety of vegetative communities exist, all having been extensively modified by logging, housing, agriculture, and/or grazing prior to the establishment of the park. Of particular significance are the red cedar savannah and the hackberry forest communities which support several rare or threatened species of flora and fauna. Due to the parks southerly location a large number of provincially and nationally rare vascular plant species are present. Invasive plant species, however, are becoming an increasing problem and are out-competing many of these native species. Nationally threatened mammal species are also present, including the Eastern Mole and the reintroduced Southern Flying Squirrel.

Oiseaux

Point Pelee National Park is most renowned for its concentrations of songbirds during both spring and fall migration. On some days the numbers of migrants are astounding. As an example, recent one-day peaks for several songbirds include: 5,000 Golden-crowned Kinglets, 3,000 Ruby-crowned Kinglets, 400 Yellow-rumped Warblers, 620 Nashville Warblers, 280 Chestnut-sided Warblers, and 1,400 Baltimore Oriole. It is likely that several million songbirds migrate through the Park each year.

Numerous nationally threatened species are also present during migration (Prothonotary Warbler - 11 reported from May 6 to 26, 1997; Hooded Warbler - 53 reported from April 20 to May 21, 1995; Louisiana Waterthrush - 12 reported from April 18 to May 11; and Henslows Sparrow - 11 reported from April 20 to May 23, 1996). Henslows Sparrow is also identified as a globally near-threatened species. In addition to concentrations of threatened migrating species, over a third of eastern Canadas Yellow-breasted Chat population (as many as 32 pairs were reported in 1995) breed within the Park. Yellow-breasted Chats are identified as nationally vulnerable.

A number of waterbirds also occur at Point Pelee in significant numbers. At least two species (Red-breasted Mergansers, and Bonapartes Gull) are regularly present in globally significant numbers during migration (i.e., greater than 1% of their populations), and over the last five years three additional species have occasionally been recorded in globally significant numbers (Common Tern, Forsters Tern, and Black Tern). Double-crested Cormorant have also occurred in nationally significant numbers with as many as 8,600 birds being recorded in September of 1995.

Enjeux de conservation

Point Pelee was designated as a national park in 1918. It was the first to be created primarily on the merit of its biological value. In 1987, Point Pelee was designated as a Ramsar site because of its international importance as a staging area for waterfowl. It is also recognized as an international Monarch Butterfly Reserve.

The Point Pelee National Park Management Plan, last revised in 1995, outlines measures to maintain and enhance the ecological integrity of the park and identifies appropriate visitor-related use and facilities. Current conservation initiatives at the park include: the Red Cedar Savannah restoration project; White-Tailed deer population control; small mammal survey and monitoring; natural habitat restoration projects; organochlorine contaminant study; exotic plant management; and a groundwater quality study.

Human land use in southern Ontario and on Lake Erie has directly effected Point Pelee National Park. Prevailing westerly winds expose the park to airborne pollution from neighbouring industrial centres in the United States (Detroit, Toledo and Cleveland). Lake Eries poor water quality, due to industrial, urban and agricultural pollution, has altered the ecology of the marsh at the Park. The marsh flora and fauna has also been altered by introduced species from the Lake. High Lake Erie water levels have eroded and breached the eastern barrier ridge. Consequently, increased turbidity and wave action in the open ponds has resulted in the break-up of cattail mats and the movement of floating sections. The park is also threatened by oil and toxic chemical spills because of its location along the Great Lakes shipping channel. Extensive land clearing in the greater park ecosystem has isolated the park from other natural areas.

Catégories ZICO Habitats Usages Menaces Potencielles ou Existantes Status de Protection
Harle huppé
Nombre Année Saison
4 000 - 5 5002017Automne
6 500 - 10 0002016Automne
4 0002016Printemps
3 8462015Hiver
5 500 - 13 3002015Automne
2 000 - 10 0002014Automne
2 000 - 3 0002014Printemps
5 000 - 80 0002013Automne
2 000 - 2 5002013Printemps
3 1852013Hiver
15 000 - 50 0002012Automne
4 0002012Printemps
2 000 - 13 5002011Hiver
20 0002011Automne
2 000 - 50 0002010Automne
2 0002009Automne
2 000 - 3 0002009Printemps
2 0002008Printemps
2 000 - 5 0002007Printemps
2 0002006Automne
3 0001998Automne
45 0001992Automne
Fuligule milouinan
Nombre Année Saison
4 5002017Hiver
4 5002016Printemps
5 000 - 7 4002015Hiver
50 0002015Printemps
16 850 - 29 0002014Hiver
7 000 - 15 0002014Automne
5 000 - 50 0002013Hiver
10 000 - 50 0002012Hiver
10 0002012Automne
15 0002010Hiver
8 000 - 10 0002010Printemps
5 0002009Printemps
Mouette de Bonaparte
Nombre Année Saison
9 0002015Automne
6 000 - 7 5002014Automne
15 0001992Automne
Quiscale rouilleux
Nombre Année Saison
27 - 502017Automne
402017Printemps
402016Hiver
25 - 452015Automne
24 - 552014Automne
802012Automne
60 - 1502012Printemps
502001Automne
501996Printemps
501990Hiver
Mouette pygmée
Nombre Année Saison
62015Automne
32013Été
2 - 32013Printemps
22005Printemps
32004Printemps
21998Printemps
21996Printemps
31992Printemps
Sterne pierregarin
Nombre Année Saison
8 0002000Printemps
1 4001994Printemps
Martinet ramoneur
Nombre Année Saison
25 - 402017Printemps
252015Printemps
252014Printemps
25 - 302013Automne
25 - 402013Printemps
592012Automne
302011Automne
602011Printemps
25 - 602009Printemps
352007Printemps
302003Été
251998Printemps
501997Printemps
30 - 1001996Printemps
301995Automne
401990Printemps
Ictérie polyglotte
Nombre Année Saison
22017Automne
1 - 22017Printemps
12016Automne
1 - 22016Printemps
12015Printemps
1 - 22014Printemps
1 - 22013Printemps
1 - 22012Printemps
1 - 22011Printemps
32010Automne
1 - 22010Printemps
12009Printemps
1 - 22008Printemps
1 - 22007Printemps
12006Été
1 - 22006Printemps
1 - 32005Été
1 - 22005Printemps
1 - 42004Printemps
12003Printemps
12002Été
1 - 22002Printemps
12002Autre
12001Été
1 - 42001Printemps
12001Autre
12000Été
1 - 22000Printemps
11999Été
1 - 51999Printemps
11998Été
1 - 21998Printemps
1 - 31997Été
1 - 61997Printemps
11996Automne
11996Été
1 - 31996Printemps
1 - 641995Été
1 - 41995Printemps
1 - 61994Printemps
1 - 201993Été
1 - 31993Printemps
1 - 31992Printemps
281992Été
1 - 21991Printemps
11990Été
11990Printemps
Bruant de Henslow
Nombre Année Saison
12017Printemps
12016Printemps
12015Printemps
1 - 22014Printemps
12013Printemps
12012Printemps
12011Printemps
12010Printemps
12009Printemps
12007Printemps
12004Printemps
12002Printemps
1 - 21999Printemps
1 - 61997Printemps
1 - 111996Printemps
11990Printemps
161986Printemps
Paruline orangée
Nombre Année Saison
12017Automne
2 - 42017Été
2 - 62017Printemps
12016Été
1 - 22016Printemps
12015Automne
1 - 22015Printemps
12014Automne
12014Été
1 - 22014Printemps
12013Automne
12013Printemps
1 - 52012Été
1 - 32012Printemps
12011Été
1 - 32011Printemps
1 - 22010Printemps
1 - 22009Printemps
1 - 32008Printemps
12007Printemps
1 - 22006Printemps
12005Été
12005Printemps
1 - 22004Printemps
12003Printemps
12002Été
1 - 32002Printemps
12001Printemps
12000Printemps
11999Printemps
11998Printemps
1 - 111997Printemps
1 - 21996Printemps
1 - 111995Printemps
1 - 81994Printemps
1 - 91993Printemps
11992Printemps
11991Printemps
11990Printemps
Moucherolle vert
Nombre Année Saison
12017Printemps
12016Printemps
12015Printemps
1 - 22014Printemps
12013Printemps
12012Automne
12012Printemps
1 - 52011Printemps
12010Printemps
12009Printemps
12008Printemps
12007Printemps
12004Printemps
12003Printemps
12002Printemps
12001Été
12000Printemps
11999Printemps
11998Été
11998Printemps
11997Été
11997Printemps
11996Été
1 - 21995Printemps
11992Printemps
Paruline hochequeue
Nombre Année Saison
6 - 101997Printemps
121996Printemps
61995Printemps
101994Printemps
Faucon pèlerin
Nombre Année Saison
122009Automne
13 - 291995Automne
221993Automne
91992Automne
Paruline de Kirtland
Nombre Année Saison
12017Printemps
1 - 22016Printemps
12015Printemps
12013Printemps
12011Printemps
12010Printemps
12008Printemps
12007Printemps
12006Printemps
12005Printemps
12004Printemps
12003Printemps
12002Printemps
11998Printemps
11996Printemps
11995Printemps
11993Printemps
Pic à tête rouge
Nombre Année Saison
132017Printemps
15 - 252013Printemps
122012Printemps
12 - 142010Printemps
Pie-grièche migratrice
Nombre Année Saison
12013Printemps
12006Automne
Râle élégant
Nombre Année Saison
12015Printemps
12010Automne
11994Printemps
Oiseaux aquatiques
Nombre Année Saison
45 0001992Automne