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Pelee Island Natural Areas (ON013)

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Pelee Island Natural Areas (ON013)

Southwest Lake Erie, Ontario

Latitude 41,770°N
Longitude 82,649°O
Altitude 174 - 185,5m
Superficie 58,62km²

Description du site

Pelee Island is the largest island in the western Lake Erie archipelago. It has an average frost-free period of 195 days longer than any other part of Ontario and most of Ohio. This climate allows for a growing season equivalent to that of West Virginia, which results in a mix of plant communities that are found nowhere else in Canada or in any of the adjacent U.S. states. Large areas of Chinquapin Oak alvar-savanna (a vegetation community of global significance) are located in many of the remaining natural areas. Other vegetative communities, such as the deciduous forests and marshes at Lighthouse Point and Fish Point Provincial Nature Reserves also support significant natural communities, with over 50 rare plant species being present. In addition to rare plants, numerous rare animals are also present including: the nationally endangered Lake Erie Water Snake and Blue Racer, nationally threatened Eastern Fox Snake, nationally vulnerable Smallmouth Salamander, and Grey Fox.

Oiseaux

Pelee Island supports one of the largest concentrations of nesting Yellow-breasted Chats (nationally vulnerable) in eastern Canada. At least 10 to 20 nesting pairs are present on an annual basis. This estimate would represent about one-third of the eastern Canada population.

Pelee Island also supports large concentrations of songbirds during both the spring and fall migrations, especially in the Fish Point and Lighthouse Point Nature Reserves. In addition to the more abundant species such as warblers and sparrows, several threatened species, such as Henslows Sparrow (near threatened globally, nationally endangered), Prothonotary Warbler (nationally endangered), and Hooded Warblers (nationally threatened) are present. Both Prothonotary Warblers and Hooded Warblers have nested on the island but not in large numbers and not on a regular basis. Other common nesters in the islands natural areas include Red-bellied Woodpecker, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, and Carolina Wren.

Several waterbird species often congregate in the marshes, on the sandbars, and in the waters off the island. Thousands of Double-crested Cormorants are regularly observed, along with various shorebird, gull, and heron species such as: Dunlin, Herring Gulls, Great Egrets, Great Blue Herons, and Black-crowned Night-Herons. Many of the herons, cormorants and gulls likely originate from the nesting colonies on the other small islands in the archipelago (Middle Island, East Sister Island, etc.). These nesting colonies have also been identified as IBAs. Formerly, a very large Black-crowned Night-Heron colony was located at Fish Point (900 pairs in 1971), but this colony appears to have shifted to Middle Island (to the south of Pelee Island) in 1980.

Enjeux de conservation

The greatest threat to the Yellow-breasted Chat habitat is succession. In the later part of the 20th century, the number of island farmers has plummeted, while the size of farms have increased, resulting in the abandonment of many farmsteads and traditional farming practices (cattle grazing, widespread and small-scale burns etc.). Additionally, a significant portion of the Yellow-breasted Chat habitat remains unprotected and could be threatened by aggregate resource extraction.

Catégories ZICO Habitats Usages Menaces Potencielles ou Existantes Status de Protection
Harle huppé
Nombre Année Saison
3 5002014Printemps
2 170 - 3 0452011Automne
5 000 - 9 0002011Printemps
2 920 - 3 8402005Automne
2 6502004Automne
Fuligule milouinan
Nombre Année Saison
15 0002013Hiver
Cormoran à aigrettes
Nombre Année Saison
13 000 - 17 5002016Automne
14 1502010Automne
12 2002006Automne
01992Été
41990Été
221988Été
501981Été
Mouette de Bonaparte
Nombre Année Saison
3 000 - 4 0002014Printemps
Quiscale rouilleux
Nombre Année Saison
1002017Printemps
35 - 502016Automne
262016Printemps
30 - 452015Automne
30 - 652014Printemps
232013Automne
352013Printemps
842012Automne
24 - 1502012Printemps
28 - 1222011Automne
302011Printemps
25 - 622010Automne
522010Été
25 - 1252009Automne
25 - 1902008Automne
23 - 452007Automne
24 - 1112006Automne
27 - 6212005Automne
29 - 312005Printemps
24 - 602004Automne
292004Printemps
25 - 642003Automne
Bihoreau gris
Nombre Année Saison
1 8001971Été
Mouette pygmée
Nombre Année Saison
31996Automne
Ictérie polyglotte
Nombre Année Saison
12016Été
22015Été
12014Printemps
12013Printemps
12012Été
12012Printemps
12011Printemps
12010Printemps
12009Printemps
12008Printemps
12007Automne
1 - 22006Automne
12005Automne
12005Printemps
12004Printemps
12003Été
1 - 22003Printemps
11999Été
61997Été
401996Été
201995Été
1 - 21995Printemps
3 - 81991Été
21990Printemps
121988Été
121982Été
Moucherolle vert
Nombre Année Saison
12017Printemps
12016Été
12016Printemps
12014Été
12014Printemps
12013Été
12013Printemps
1 - 22012Printemps
1 - 32011Printemps
1 - 22010Printemps
12009Printemps
12008Été
12008Printemps
12007Été
12007Printemps
12006Été
22005Été
11993Printemps
??Autre
Paruline orangée
Nombre Année Saison
12017Été
12016Printemps
12015Automne
1 - 22015Printemps
12014Automne
12014Printemps
12013Printemps
22012Printemps
1 - 22011Automne
1 - 22011Printemps
12010Automne
12010Printemps
12009Printemps
12006Printemps
12005Printemps
12004Printemps
??Autre
Bruant de Henslow
Nombre Année Saison
12011Printemps
11997Été
??Printemps
Paruline de Kirtland
Nombre Année Saison
12011Printemps
12009Printemps
Râle élégant
Nombre Année Saison
12009Printemps
??Autre
Martinet ramoneur
Nombre Année Saison
242016Automne
232009Automne